Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees.
As a student he was brilliant but psychologically tormented. From the s on, Foucault was very active politically. He frequently lectured outside France, particularly in the United States, and in had agreed to teach annually at the University of California at Berkeley.
One might question whether Foucault is in fact a philosopher. His academic formation was in psychology and its history as well as in philosophy, his books were mostly histories of medical and social sciences, his passions were literary and political. This article will present him as a philosopher in these two dimensions.
Intellectual Background We begin, however, with a sketch of the philosophical environment in which Foucault was educated. Merleau-Ponty, whose lectures he attended, and Heidegger were particularly important.
But he soon turned away from both. Jean-Paul Sartre, working outside the University system, had no personal influence on Foucault.
But, as the French master-thinker of the previous generation, he is always in the background. Like Sartre, Foucault began from a relentless hatred of bourgeois society and culture and with a spontaneous sympathy for marginal groups such as the mad, homosexuals, and prisoners.
They both also had strong interests in literature and psychology as well as philosophy, and both, after an early relative lack of political interest, became committed activists. But in the end, Foucault seemed to insist on defining himself Doctor literature philosophy thesis contradiction to Sartre.
Three other factors were of much more positive significance for the young Foucault. In a quite different vein, Foucault was enthralled by French avant-garde literature, especially the writings of Georges Bataille and Maurice Blanchot, where he found the experiential concreteness of existential phenomenology without what he came to see as dubious philosophical assumptions about subjectivity.
Major Works Since its beginnings with Socrates, philosophy has typically involved the project of questioning the accepted knowledge of the day. Later, Locke, Hume, and especially, Kant developed a distinctively modern idea of philosophy as the critique of knowledge.
What might have seemed just contingent features of human cognition for example, the spatial and temporal character of its perceptual objects turn out to be necessary truths. Foucault, however, suggests the need to invert this Kantian move.
Rather than asking what, in the apparently contingent, is actually necessary, he suggests asking what, in the apparently necessary, might be contingent. The focus of his questioning is the modern human sciences biological, psychological, social.
These purport to offer universal scientific truths about human nature that are, in fact, often mere expressions of ethical and political commitments of a particular society. Each of his major books is a critique of historical reason.
Standard histories saw the nineteenth-century medical treatment of madness developed from the reforms of Pinel in France and the Tuke brothers in England as an enlightened liberation of the mad from the ignorance and brutality of preceding ages.
Moreover, he argued that the alleged scientific neutrality of modern medical treatments of insanity are in fact covers for controlling challenges to conventional bourgeois morality.
In short, Foucault argued that what was presented as an objective, incontrovertible scientific discovery that madness is mental illness was in fact the product of eminently questionable social and ethical commitments.
But the socio-ethical critique is muted except for a few vehement passagespresumably because there is a substantial core of objective truth in medicine as opposed to psychiatry and so less basis for criticism. But there is little or nothing of the implicit social critique found in the History of Madness or even The Birth of the Clinic.
Instead, Foucault offers an analysis of what knowledge meant—and how this meaning changed—in Western thought from the Renaissance to the present. At the heart of his account is the notion of representation.
But, he says, we need to be clear about what it meant for an idea to represent an object. This was not, first of all, any sort of relation of resemblance: By contrast, during the Renaissance, knowledge was understood as a matter of resemblance between things.
The map is a useful model of Classical representation.Simone de Beauvoir (—) Simone de Beauvoir was one of the most preeminent French existentialist philosophers and writers.
Working alongside other famous existentialists such as Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, de Beauvoir produced a rich corpus of writings including works on ethics, feminism, fiction, autobiography, and politics.
Nagarjuna (c. —c. ) Often referred to as "the second Buddha" by Tibetan and East Asian Mahayana (Great Vehicle) traditions of Buddhism, Nagarjuna offered sharp criticisms of Brahminical and Buddhist substantialist philosophy, theory of knowledge, and approaches to practice.
Nagarjuna's philosophy represents something of a watershed not only in the history of Indian philosophy but in. DOCTOR OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY in the subject BIBLICAL STUDIES at the UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA PROMOTER: PROFESSOR J.J_ BURDEN JUNE \ DEDICATED TO Bomma -Tlou!
And Ngwaladi! Hebrew quotations of this thesis. 5. The University of South Africa for having assisted me financially for the year A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah Recommended: 10th, 11th, 12th.
Prerequisite: This follows Literature and Composition in the progression, but it can be taken without having completed the other. Test Prep: CLEP English Literature, SAT. Course Description: Students will receive an overview of British literature from early Anglo-Saxon to srmvision.comry study will be infused with historical applications for a better.
The Doctor of Philosophy is a research oriented degree that prepares successful candidates for positions in higher education, private organizations, public agencies, and other research-based positions.