History[ edit ] Legislation concerning the legal minimum drinking age in the United States can be traced back to the days of Prohibition. Inthe 18th amendment to the U.
Expand Studying College Alcohol Use: The study was designed to assess current trends in studying, and emerging approaches to furthering understanding of, college drinking.
A literature review was conducted of findings and methods highlighting conceptual and methodological issues that need to be addressed. Most studies address clinical, developmental and psychological variables and are conducted at single points in time on single campuses.
Factors affecting college alcohol use and methods of studying them are discussed. Most current studies of college drinking do not address the influence of the college and its alcohol environment.
Our understanding of college drinking can be improved by expanding the scope of issues studied and choosing appropriate research designs.
This article provides information on the extent of alcohol use and other drug use among American college students.
Five different sources of data are examined for estimating recent levels of alcohol and other drug use among college students: Alcohol use rates are very high among college students.
Approximately two of five American college students were heavy drinkers, defined as having had five or more drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol use is higher among male than female students.
Minimum legal drinking ages around the world vary dramatically. Most such laws apply only to drinking alcoholic beverages in public locations. The only country with a minimum legal age for consuming alcohol at home is the United Kingdom, which prohibits drinking below the age of six. due to variations in recent years in state-level minimum drinking age laws, and (2) to examine the effects of recent changes in minimum drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, and on other relevant attitudes and behaviors. The goal of this article is to review critically the extant minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) research literature and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the effectiveness of this policy. Comprehensive searches of four databases were conducted to identify empirical studies of the MLDA published from to
White students are highest in heavy drinking, black students are lowest and Hispanic students are intermediate. Use of alcohol—but not cigarettes, marijuana and cocaine—is higher among college students than among noncollege age-mates. Longitudinal data show that, while in high school, students who go on to attend college have lower rates of heavy drinking than do those who will not attend college.
Both groups increase their heavy drinking after high school graduation, but the college students increase distinctly more and actually surpass their nonstudent age-mates.
Trend data from to show some slight improvement in recent years. Despite improvements in the past 20 years, colleges need to do more to reduce heavy alcohol use among students.
Research on individual differences in drinking rates and associated problems among college students is reviewed. Studies are included if completed within U. The resulting review suggests first that the extant literature is large and varied in quality, as most studies use questionnaire responses from samples of convenience in cross-sectional designs.
Evidence from studies of college samples does consistently suggest that alcohol is consumed for several different purposes for different psychological effects in different contexts. This pattern is supported by research into personality, drinking motives, alcohol expectancies and drinking contexts.
A second pattern of drinking associated with negative emotional states is also documented. Some long-term consequences of this second pattern have been described.
Social processes appear especially important for drinking in many college venues and may contribute to individual differences in drinking more than enduring personality differences. Future research efforts should test interactive and mediating models of multiple risk factors and address developmental processes.
This article offers a developmental perspective on college drinking by focusing on broad developmental themes during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. A literature review was conducted. The transition to college involves major individual and contextual change in every domain of life; at the same time, heavy drinking and associated problems increase during this transition.Researchers recently conducted economic analyses to estimate the effects of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) on deaths, injuries, crime, and alcohol consumption, and to identify the costs and benefits of lowering the drinking age to Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) laws specify the legal age when an individual can purchase or publicly consume alcoholic beverages.
The MLDA in the United States is 21 years. However, prior to the enactment of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of , the legal age when alcohol could be purchased varied from state to state.
1. National Minimum Drinking Age Act Long title An Act to encourage a uniform minimum drinking age of 21; to combat drugged driving, improve law enforcement and provide incentives to .
Effects of Minimum Drinking Age Laws: Review and Analyses of the Literature from to ALEXANDER C. WAGENAAR, PH.D.,t AND TRACI L. TOOMEY, PH.D. Division ofEpidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, South Second Street, Suite , Minneapolis, Minnesota ABSTRACT.
Minimum legal drinking ages around the world vary dramatically. Most such laws apply only to drinking alcoholic beverages in public locations. The only country with a minimum legal age for consuming alcohol at home is the United Kingdom, which prohibits drinking below the age of six.
Typically, these laws prohibit driving with a BAC of % or greater. The zero tolerance and minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws are the primary legal countermeasures against underage drinking and driving in the United States.