We have almost free, full-length certificate courses ready for you to take right now. Many of our courses can connect to zero-tuition college credit through our dozens of partner colleges and universities.
Information and the MIS concept Information is a set of classified and interpreted data used in decision making. It has also been defined as 'some tangible or intangible entity which serves to reduce uncertainty about future state or events' Lucas, A management information system MIS is 'an integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision making functions in an organization.
The system utilizes computers, manual procedures, models for analysis, planning, control and decision making, and a database' Davis and Olson, MIS facilitates managerial functioning.
Management information is an important input at every level in the organization for decision making, planning, organizing, implementing, and monitoring and controlling. MIS is valuable because of its content, form and timing of presentation. In the context of different levels of decision making, information can be described as: The MIS concept comprises three interrelated and interdependent key elements: An MIS is directed towards the managerial functions of planning, controlling and monitoring, and decision making.
Planning Planning consists of five sequential and interactive steps Kumar, The basic requirements during the planning process of most importance in designing and implementing an MIS for an organization are Kumar, Monitoring and controlling Controlling 'compels events to conform to plans' Murdick and Ross, The requirements for successful development of a control system are: Decision making Decision making is the process of selecting the most desirable or optimum alternative to solve a problem or achieve an objective.
The quality and soundness of managerial decisions is largely contingent upon the information available to the decision-maker. Gorry and Scott Morton classified decision making on three levels of a continuum: They are part of the planning activity. It is for short-term activities and associated allocation of resources to them to achieve the objectives.
Elements of decision making The four components of the decision making process are Burch and Strater, The model may be quantitative or qualitative.
When there is a conflict between different criteria, a choice has to be made through compromise. Constraints are limiting factors which define outer limits and have to be respected while making a decision. For example, limited availability of funds is a constraint with which most decision makers have to live.
Modern management is based upon a systems approach to the organization. The systems approach views an organization as a set of interrelated sub-systems in which variables are mutually dependent. A system can be perceived as having: The organizing system has five basic parts, which are interdependent Murdick and Ross, The interrelationship of the sub-systems within an organization is fundamental to the systems approach.
The different components of the organization have to operate in a coordinated manner to attain common organizational goals. This results in synergic effects. The term synergy means that when different sub-systems work together they tend to be more efficient than if they work in isolation Murdick and Ross, Thus, the output of a system with well integrated sub-systems would be much more than the sum of the outputs of the independent sub-systems working in isolation.
The systems approach provides a total view of the organization. It enables analysis of an organization in a scientific manner, so that operating management systems can be developed and an appropriate MIS designed Murdick and Ross, By providing the required information, an MIS can help interrelate, coordinate and integrate different sub-systems within an organization, thus facilitating and increasing coordinated working of the sub-systems, with consequent synergism.
The interaction between different components of the organization depends upon integration, communication and decision making. Together they create a linking process in the organization. Integration ensures that different sub-systems work towards the common goal.
Coordination and integration are useful controlling mechanisms which ensure smooth functioning in the organization, particularly as organizations become large and increasingly complex.
As organizations face environmental complexity, diversity and change, they need more and more internal differentiation, and specialization becomes complex and diverse.
The need for integration also increases as structural dimensions increase.NIEM is a common vocabulary that enables efficient information exchange across diverse public and private organizations.
NIEM can save time and money by providing consistent, reusable data terms and definitions and repeatable processes. ISO IEC Plain English information security management definitions. Use our definitions to understand the ISO IEC and standards and to protect and preserve your organization's information.
As you can see, these definitions focus on two different ways of describing information systems: the components that make up an information system and the role that those components play in an organization. Let’s take a look at each of these. Produce data layers, maps, tables, or reports, using spatial analysis procedures or Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology, equipment, or systems.
Major Category. Description. Automated Information System (AIS) As defined in Enclosure 1 Table 1 of DoDI (Footnote 4), an AIS is a system of computer hardware, software, data or telecommunications that performs functions such as collecting, processing, storing, transmitting, and displaying srmvision.com exclude .
discuss seminal works by Brynjolfsson, Carr, and Porter as they relate to IT and competitive advantage.
Chapter 8: Business Processes– Business processes are the essence of what a business does, and information systems play an important role in making them work.