University of Iowa Residency:
Projectional radiograph of the knee. The X-rays are projected through the body onto a detector; an image is formed based on which rays pass through and are detected versus those that are absorbed or scattered in the patient and thus are not detected. In film-screen radiography, an X-ray tube generates a beam of X-rays, which is aimed at the patient.
The X-rays that pass through the patient are filtered through a device called an grid or X-ray filterto reduce scatter, and strike an undeveloped film, which is held tightly to a screen of light-emitting phosphors in a light-tight cassette.
The film is then developed chemically and an image appears on the film. Film-screen radiography is being replaced by phosphor plate radiography but more recently by digital radiography DR and the EOS imaging. In digital radiography the sensors shape a plate, but in the EOS system, which is a slot-scanning system, a linear sensor vertically scans the patient.
Plain radiography was the only imaging modality available during the first 50 years of radiology. Due to its availability, speed, and lower costs compared to other modalities, radiography is often the first-line test of choice in radiologic diagnosis.
Also despite the large amount of data in CT scans, MR scans and other digital-based imaging, there are many disease entities in which the classic diagnosis is obtained by plain radiographs. Examples include various types of arthritis and pneumonia, bone tumors especially benign bone tumorsfractures, congenital skeletal anomalies, etc.
Mammography and DXA are two applications of low energy projectional radiography, used for the evaluation for breast cancer and osteoporosisrespectively. Fluoroscopy Fluoroscopy and angiography are special applications of X-ray imaging, in which a fluorescent screen and image intensifier tube is connected to a closed-circuit television system.
Radiocontrast agents are usually administered by swallowing or injecting into the body of the patient to delineate anatomy and functioning of the blood vessels, the genitourinary systemor the gastrointestinal tract GI tract.
Two radiocontrast agents are presently in common use. Iodine, in multiple proprietary forms, is given by oral, rectal, vaginal, intra-arterial or intravenous routes.
These radiocontrast agents strongly absorb or scatter X-rays, and in conjunction with the real-time imaging, allow demonstration of dynamic processes, such as peristalsis in the digestive tract or blood flow in arteries and veins.
Iodine contrast may also be concentrated in abnormal areas more or less than in normal tissues and make abnormalities tumorscystsinflammation more conspicuous. Additionally, in specific circumstances, air can be used as a contrast agent for the gastrointestinal system and carbon dioxide can be used as a contrast agent in the venous system; in these cases, the contrast agent attenuates the X-ray radiation less than the surrounding tissues.
X-ray computed tomography Image from a CT scan of the brain CT imaging uses X-rays in conjunction with computing algorithms to image the body. CT is acquired in the axial plane, with coronal and sagittal images produced by computer reconstruction. Radiocontrast agents are often used with CT for enhanced delineation of anatomy.
Although radiographs provide higher spatial resolution, CT can detect more subtle variations in attenuation of X-rays higher contrast resolution. CT exposes the patient to significantly more ionizing radiation than a radiograph. Spiral multidetector CT uses 16, 64, or more detectors during continuous motion of the patient through the radiation beam to obtain fine detail images in a short exam time.
With rapid administration of intravenous contrast during the CT scan, these fine detail images can be reconstructed into three-dimensional 3D images of carotid, cerebral, coronary or other arteries. The introduction of computed tomography in the early s revolutionized diagnostic radiology by providing Clinicians with images of real three-dimensional anatomic structures.
CT scanning has become the test of choice in diagnosing some urgent and emergent conditions, such as cerebral hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism clots in the arteries of the lungsaortic dissection tearing of the aortic wallappendicitisdiverticulitisand obstructing kidney stones.
Continuing improvements in CT technology, including faster scanning times and improved resolution, have dramatically increased the accuracy and usefulness of CT scanning, which may partially account for increased use in medical diagnosis.
Medical ultrasonography Medical ultrasonography uses ultrasound high-frequency sound waves to visualize soft tissue structures in the body in real time. No ionizing radiation is involved, but the quality of the images obtained using ultrasound is highly dependent on the skill of the person ultrasonographer performing the exam and the patient's body size.
Examinations of larger, overweight patients may have a decrease in image quality as their subcutaneous fat absorbs more of the sound waves. This results in fewer sound waves penetrating to organs and reflecting back to the transducer, resulting in loss of information and a poorer quality image.
Ultrasound is also limited by its inability to image through air pockets lungs, bowel loops or bone. Its use in medical imaging has developed mostly within the last 30 years.The Medical College of Wisconsin offers a three residency programs and eight radiology sub-specialty fellowship programs.
Essay about Radiology: Medical Imaging and Extensive Training Radiologists diagnose or treat diseases. Diagnostic radiologists must complete four years of medical school plus five years of post-graduate training.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body. A variety of imaging techniques such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine including positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used to diagnose .
Radiation oncologists receive extensive training in cancer medicine, in the safe use of radiation to treat disease, and in managing any side effects caused by radiation.
RadiologyInfo The trusted source of information for the public about radiology and the unique and vital role of radiologists in healthcare. Radiology Coding Need The volume of radiologic studies has grown explosively, making the shortage of certified coders with extensive training and experience in radiology coding more acute.
Radiology coder turnover creates cash flow peaks and valleys. Our sonologists are recognized experts and provide instruction to radiology and Ob/Gyn residents, medical students and sonographers. Our physicians also participate in training of the Body Imaging and Women's Imaging fellows.