Herodotus Bust of Herodotus Herodotus could be considered one of the earliest anthropologists in Western tradition, and his work can be regarded as some of the earliest anthropological studies. He learned about and recounted information on how the Scythians lived, and he also learned about nomads who lived further north than the Scythians. Even though the information he recounts was translated many times before transcribed, artifacts similar to the ones he describes have been found in modern excavations in Russia and Kazakhstan.
It first appears sporadically in the scholarly Latin anthropologia of Renaissance France, where it spawns the French word anthropologie, transferred into English as anthropology.
It does belong to a class of words produced with the -logy suffix, such as archeo-logy, bio-logy, etc. The mixed character of Greek anthropos and Latin -logia marks it as New Latin.
He did find an anthropologos from Aristotle in the standard ancient Greek Lexiconwhich he says defines the word as "speaking or treating of man". The lack of any ancient denotation of anthropology, however, is not an etymological problem.
Liddell and Scott list Greek compounds ending in —logia, enough to justify its later use as a productive suffix. The thing collected is primarily ideas, especially in speech. The American Heritage Dictionary says: Such an identification is speculative, depending on the theorist's view of anthropology; nevertheless, speculations have been formulated by credible anthropologists, especially those that consider themselves functionalists and others in history so classified now.
The science of history[ edit ] Marvin Harrisa historian of anthropology, begins The Rise of Anthropological Theory with the statement that anthropology is "the science of history".
He is using "history" in a special sense, as the founders of cultural anthropology used it: It includes both documented history and prehistory, but its slant is toward institutional development rather than particular non-repeatable historical events.
According to Harris, the 19th-century anthropologists were theorizing under the presumption that the development of society followed some sort of laws. He decries the loss of that view in the 20th century by the denial that any laws are discernable or that current institutions have any bearing on ancient.
He coins the term ideographic for them. The 19th-century views, on the other hand, are nomothetic ; that is, they provide laws. He intends "to reassert the methodological priority of the search for the laws of history in the science of man". The Struggle for a Science of Culture.
Elsewhere he refers to "my theories of historical determinism", defining the latter: Different philosophers, however, use determinism in different senses. The deterministic element that Harris sees is lack of human social engineering: When they act in society, they do so according to the laws of history, of which they are not aware; hence, there is no historical element of free will.
Like the 20th-century anthropologists in general, Harris places a high value on the empiricism, or collection of data.
This function must be performed by trained observers. He borrows terms from linguistics: Only trained observers can avoid eticism, or description without regard to the meaning in the culture: Diachronic "through time" data shows the development of lines through time.
Cultural materialism, being a "processually holistic and globally comparative scientific research strategy" must depend for accuracy on all four types of data.
Different material factors produce different cultures. Harris, like many other anthropologists, in looking for anthropological method and data before the use of the term anthropology, had little difficulty finding them among the ancient authors.
The ancients tended to see players on the stage of history as ethnic groups characterized by the same or similar languages and customs: Thus the term history meant to a large degree the "story" of the fortunes of these players through time.
The ancient authors never formulated laws. Apart from a rudimentary three-age systemthe stages of history, such as are found in Lubbock, Tylor, Morgan, Marx and others, are yet unformulated.
Cultural evolution is an evolutionary theory of social change. It follows from the definition of culture as "information capable of affecting individuals' behavior that they acquire from other members of their species through teaching, imitation and other forms of social transmission". . Chapter 12 theory of anthropology. STUDY. PLAY. theory. the focus on particular sequences of culture changes. behavioral ecology. the study of social behavior of animals especially insects. What are the 5 mid 20th century anthropology theorys? enthoscience, structuralism, symbolic interpretive anthropology, neo-evolutionsim/cultural. Theories of DIFFUSION, according to which a key process in cultural change is cultural borrowing, or the diffusion of cultural traits (such as design motifs, folktales, and values) from one society to the next, became important in the first few decades of this century among North American anthropologists.
Proto-anthropology[ edit ] Eriksen and Nielsen use the term proto-anthropology to refer to near-anthropological writings, which contain some of the criteria for being anthropology, but not all.
They classify proto-anthropology as being "travel writing or social philosophy", going on to assert "It is only when these aspects Classical Age[ edit ] Many anthropological writers find anthropological-quality theorizing in the works of Classical Greece and Classical Rome ; for example, John Myres in Herodotus and Anthropology ; E.
Herodotus[ edit ] Herodotus was a 5th-century BC Greek historian who set about to chronicle and explain the Greco-Persian Wars that transpired early in that century.The four subfields of anthropology include cultural anthropology, archaeology, biological anthropology, and linguistic anthropology.
These four subfields have developed specialized methodological tools for understanding the different aspects of humanity and how it has changed and developed. The aim of cultural anthropology is to document the full range of human cultural adaptations and achievements and to discern in this great diversity the underlying covariations among and changes in human ecology, institutions and ideologies.
Chapter 12 theory of anthropology.
STUDY. PLAY. theory. the focus on particular sequences of culture changes. behavioral ecology. the study of social behavior of animals especially insects. What are the 5 mid 20th century anthropology theorys? enthoscience, structuralism, symbolic interpretive anthropology, neo-evolutionsim/cultural.
Cultural adaptation is a relatively new concept used to define the specific capacity of human beings and human societies to overcome changes of their natural and . Theories of DIFFUSION, according to which a key process in cultural change is cultural borrowing, or the diffusion of cultural traits (such as design motifs, folktales, and values) from one society to the next, became important in the first few decades of this century among North American anthropologists.
Modern cultural anthropology has its origins in, and developed in reaction to, 19th-century "ethnology", the comparative study of cultures; it presents analytical generalizations about human culture.