Nature versus nurture Although developmental change runs parallel with chronological age,  age itself cannot cause development. Environmental factors affecting development may include both diet and disease exposure, as well as social, emotional, and cognitive experiences. Plasticity of this type can occur throughout the lifespan and may involve many kinds of behavior, including some emotional reactions.
Modernization theory Modernization theory is used to analyze the processes in which modernization in societies take place. The theory looks at which aspects of countries are beneficial and which constitute obstacles for economic development.
Scientists from various research disciplines have contributed to modernization theory.
Sociological and anthropological modernization theory[ edit ] The earliest principles of modernization theory can be derived from the idea of progress, which stated that people can develop and change their society themselves. Marquis de Condorcet was involved in the origins of this theory. This theory also states that technological advancements and economic changes can lead to changes in moral and cultural values.
It described how social order is maintained in society and ways in which primitive societies can make the transition to more advanced societies. David Apterwho did research on the political system and history of democracy; Seymour Martin Lipsetwho argued that economic development leads to social changes which tend to lead to democracy; David McClellandwho approached modernization from the psychological side with his motivations theory; and Talcott Parsons who used his pattern variables to compare backwardness to modernity.
It assumes that economic growth can only be achieved by industrialization. Growth can be restricted by local institutions and social attitudesespecially if these aspects influence the savings rate and investments.
The constraints impeding economic growth are thus considered by this model to be internal to society. Rostow identified five stages through which developing countries had to pass to reach an advanced economy status: He argued that economic development could be led by certain strong sectors; this is in contrast to for instance Marxism which states that sectors should develop equally.
As such, it neglects the social structures that have to be present to foster development. In this model Lewis explained how the traditional stagnant rural sector is gradually replaced by a growing modern and dynamic manufacturing and service economy.
Modernization which is forced from outside upon a society might induce violent and radical change, but according to modernization theorists it is generally worth this side effect. Critics point to traditional societies as being destroyed and slipping away to a modern form of poverty without ever gaining the promised advantages of modernization.
Structuralist economics Structuralism is a development theory which focuses on structural aspects which impede the economic growth of developing countries. Policy prescriptions resulting from structuralist thinking include major government intervention in the economy to fuel the industrial sectorknown as import substitution industrialization ISI.
This structural transformation of the developing country is pursued in order to create an economy which in the end enjoys self-sustaining growth. This can only be reached by ending the reliance of the underdeveloped country on exports of primary goods agricultural and mining productsand pursuing inward-oriented development by shielding the domestic economy from that of the developed economies.
Trade with advanced economies is minimized through the erection of all kinds of trade barriers and an overvaluation of the domestic exchange rate; in this way the production of domestic substitutes of formerly imported industrial products is encouraged. The logic of the strategy rests on the infant industry argumentwhich states that young industries initially do not have the economies of scale and experience to be able to compete with foreign competitors and thus need to be protected until they are able to compete in the free market.
If true, this would also support the ISI strategy. Structuralists argue that the only way Third World countries can develop is through action by the state. Third world countries have to push industrialization and have to reduce their dependency on trade with the First Worldand trade among themselves.Feminist and Gender Theories situating the variable of race into the critical/phenomenological exploration of class and gender, while also borrowing significantly from postmodernism and recent work on the body and sexu- in the role of the pour-soi (for itself), that is, the continual process of self-realization.
Introduction. The question of how gender differences arise is a central topic in psychology.
Experts agree that nature (i.e., biology) and nurture (i.e., environment) act together in reciprocally causal, interactive ways to produce gender differences. 1 The experiences afforded to girls and boys within schools are known to affect gender differentiation both directly, by providing differential.
Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing srmvision.com is a continuous process with a predictable sequence, yet having a unique course for every child.
It does not progress at the same rate and each stage is affected by the preceding. Issues and knowledge gaps related to race in a pluralistic society were identified and recommendations for further social science research were made by over social science specialists in a study.
Conference presentations, discussions, and interviews are synthesized in this report, focusing on American society, cultural factors . MyRSU helps students, faculty and staff manage their life at RSU all in one convenient place.
See classes and complete assignments in eLearning (MyCourses). TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods.
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