Attachment theory One such influential psychological theory of crime is by Bowlbywho emphasized that crime is the product of attachment insecurity with the mother.
Precursor experiments[ edit ] Before the introduction of this theory by Wilson and Kelling, Philip Zimbardoa Stanford psychologist, arranged an experiment testing the broken-window theory in Zimbardo arranged for an automobile with no license plates and the hood up to be parked idle in Theories of crime essays Bronx neighbourhood and a second automobile in the same condition to be set up in Palo Alto, California.
The car in the Bronx was attacked within minutes of its abandonment.
Within twenty-four hours of its abandonment, everything of value had been stripped from the vehicle. At the same time, the vehicle sitting idle in Palo Alto sat untouched for more than a week until Zimbardo himself went up to the vehicle and deliberately smashed it with a sledgehammer.
Soon after, people joined in for the destruction. Zimbardo observed that a majority of the adult "vandals" in both cases were primarily well dressed, Caucasian, clean-cut and seemingly respectable individuals. It is believed that, in a neighborhood such as the Bronx where the history of abandoned property and theft are more prevalent, vandalism occurs much more quickly as the community generally seems apathetic.
Similar events can occur in any civilized community when communal barriers—the sense of mutual regard and obligations of civility—are lowered by actions that suggest apathy. Kellingthe author of Broken Windows, as a consultant.
Kelling was later hired as a consultant to the Boston and the Los Angeles police departments. InWilliam J. Bratton was influenced by Kelling, describing him as his "intellectual mentor". In his role he implemented a tougher stance on fare evasionfaster arrestee processing methods, and background checks on all those arrested.
After being elected Mayor of New York City in as a RepublicanRudy Giuliani hired Bratton as his police commissioner to implement similar policies and practices throughout the city.
Such policies emphasized addressing crimes that negatively affect quality of life. In particular, Bratton directed the police to more strictly enforce laws against subway fare evasion, public drinkingpublic urinationand graffiti.
He increased enforcement against " squeegee men ", those who aggressively demand payment at traffic stops for unsolicited car window cleanings. Bratton also revived the New York City Cabaret Lawa previously dormant Prohibition era ban on dancing in unlicensed establishments.
According to a study of crime trends in New York City by Kelling and William Sousa, rates of both petty and serious crime fell significantly after the aforementioned policies were implemented.
Furthermore, crime continued to decline for the following ten years. Such declines suggested that policies based on the Broken Windows Theory were effective. Other cities also experienced less crime, even though they had different police policies. There was no statistically significant effect on other major crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, or grand theft auto.
These results are touted as challenging prevailing scholarship as well as conventional wisdom on authority and legal compliance by implying that aggressively enforcing minor legal statutes incites more severe criminal acts. Operating under the theory that American Westerners use roadways much in the same way that American Easterners use subways, the developers of the program reasoned that lawlessness on the roadways had much the same effect as it did on the New York City Subway.
In half of the spots, authorities cleared trash, fixed streetlights, enforced building codes, discouraged loiterersmade more misdemeanor arrests, and expanded mental health services and aid for the homeless.
In the other half of the identified locations, there was no change to routine police service. The study concluded that cleaning up the physical environment was more effective than misdemeanor arrests and that increasing social services had no effect.
They selected several urban locations, which they arranged in two different ways, at different times. In each experiment, there was a "disorder" condition in which violations of social norms as prescribed by signage or national custom, such as graffiti and littering, were clearly visible as well as a control condition where no violations of norms had taken place.
The researchers then secretly monitored the locations to observe if people behaved differently when the environment was "disordered". Their observations supported the theory. The conclusion was published in the journal Science: Fixing windows is therefore also a step of real estate developmentwhich may lead, whether it is desired or not, to gentrification.
By reducing the amount of broken windows in the community, the inner cities would appear to be attractive to consumers with more capital. The belief is that students are signaled by disorder or rule-breaking and that they in turn imitate the disorder.Major Theories of Crime Causation.
Various units contain a number of theories that try to explain the causes of crime in the society. The theories have been developed to have an in-depth understanding of the crime and how best they can be addressed to ensure that humans live in a conducive environment.
Social theories are analytical frameworks, or paradigms, that are used to study and interpret social phenomena.
A tool used by social scientists, social theories relate to historical debates over the validity and reliability of different methodologies (e.g.
positivism and antipositivism), the primacy of either structure or agency, as well as the . Theories of crime Essay Sample These theories include choice theory which an individual commits a crime because they have made a choice by thinking about the risks and benefits of the actual act. Deterrence theory, the individual is choosing to make the choice of committing the crime.
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Theories of Crime Javier Bryon AIU Online Abstract There are many theories that attempt to explain criminal behavior. Social theories indicate that interaction with other individuals and environment are factors that contribute to criminal behavior.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec In this paper I am going to discuss a biological and psychological theory of crime and to differentiate between the two perspectives, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of .