Juran believes an organization can manage for quality. He believes quality starts with knowing who the customers are and what the customers need. To achieve quality Juran emphasized that the management team should commit to not only the customers but also the suppliers and the most importantly the employees. There are internal customers and external customer one organization should recognize.
The sum of the molecular masses of the reactants is For a 2 volts cell, this comes to watt-hours per kilogram of reactants, but a lead—acid cell in practice gives only 30—40 watt-hours per kilogram of battery, due to the mass of the water and other constituent parts.
Charging[ edit ] Fully recharged: Lead negative plate, Lead dioxide positive plate and sulfuric acid electrolyte In the fully charged state, the negative plate consists of lead, and the positive plate lead dioxidewith the electrolyte of concentrated sulfuric acid, which stores most of the chemical energy.
Overcharging with high charging voltages generates oxygen and hydrogen gas by electrolysis of waterwhich is lost to the cell. The design of some types of lead-acid battery allow the electrolyte level to be inspected and topped up with any water that has been lost.
Due to the freezing-point depression of the electrolyte, as the battery discharges and the concentration of sulfuric acid decreases, the electrolyte is more likely to freeze during winter weather when discharged. The reverse occurs during charge. This motion can be by electrically driven proton flow or Grotthuss mechanismor by diffusion through the medium, or by flow of a liquid electrolyte medium.
Since the density is greater when the sulfuric acid concentration is higher, the liquid will tend to circulate by convection. Therefore, a liquid-medium cell tends to rapidly discharge and rapidly charge more efficiently than an otherwise similar gel cell.
Measuring the charge level[ edit ] A hydrometer can be used to test the specific gravity of each cell as a measure of its state of charge. Because the electrolyte takes part in the charge-discharge reaction, this battery has one major advantage over other chemistries.
It is relatively simple to determine the state of charge by merely measuring the specific gravity of the electrolyte; the specific gravity falls as the battery discharges. Some battery designs include a simple hydrometer using colored floating balls of differing density.
When used in diesel-electric submarinesthe specific gravity was regularly measured and written on a blackboard in the control room to indicate how much longer the boat could remain submerged. Note that neither technique gives any indication of charge capacity, only charge level.
Charge capacity of any rechargeable battery will decline with age and usage, meaning that it may no longer be fit for the intended purpose even when nominally fully charged. Other tests, usually involving current drain, are used to determine the residual charge capacity of a battery.
Voltages for common usage[ edit ] IUoU battery charging is a three-stage charging procedure for lead-acid batteries. For a single cell, the voltage can range from 1. Float voltage varies depending on battery type, i.
Equalization voltage, and charging voltage for sulfated cells, can range from 2. Plates[ edit ] Internal view of a small lead-acid battery from an electric-start equipped motorcycle The lead—acid cell can be demonstrated using sheet lead plates for the two electrodes. However, such a construction produces only around one ampere for roughly postcard-sized plates, and for only a few minutes.
The cells initially had low capacity, so a slow process of "forming" was required to corrode the lead foils, creating lead dioxide on the plates and roughening them to increase surface area. Initially this process used electricity from primary batteries; when generators became available afterthe cost of production of batteries greatly declined.
InCamille Alphonse Faure patented a method of coating a lead grid which serves as the current conductor with a paste of lead oxides, sulfuric acid and water, followed by curing phase in which the plates were exposed to gentle heat in a high humidity environment.
The curing process caused the paste to change to a mixture of lead sulfates which adhered to the lead plate. Then, during the battery's initial charge called "formation" the cured paste on the plates was converted into electrochemically active material the "active mass".
The grid developed by Faure was of pure lead with connecting rods of lead at right angles. In contrast, present-day grids are structured for improved mechanical strength and improved current flow. In addition to different grid patterns ideally, all points on the plate are equidistant from the power conductormodern-day processes also apply one or two thin fibre-glass mats over the grid to distribute the weight more evenly.
However, high-antimony grids have higher hydrogen evolution which also accelerates as the battery agesand thus greater outgassing and higher maintenance costs. These issues were identified by U.
Haring at Bell Labs in the s and eventually led to the development of lead- calcium grid alloys in for standby power batteries on the U. Related research led to the development of lead- selenium grid alloys in Europe a few years later.
Both lead-calcium and lead-selenium grid alloys still add antimony, albeit in much smaller quantities than the older high-antimony grids: These metallurgical improvements give the grid more strength, which allows it carry more weight, i.
High-antimony alloy grids are still used in batteries intended for frequent cycling, e.Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are prime examples of electrochemical energy conversion technologies in action.
Believed to be ideal sources of clean power, PEM fuel cells are replacing internal combustion and diesel engines in vehicles, as well as Pb-acid batteries and diesel generators in the emergency backup of telecommunications. service quality and customer satisfaction: antecedents of customer’s re-patronage intentions yap sheau fen a kew mei lian kdu college abstract.
– 7 quadrupoles (TQC) and 6 quadrupole mirrors (TQM) – collar based mechanical structure – G nom = T/m, accelerator quality • –technology scale up using mirror structures critical path R&D for future very high-energy proton-proton colliders.
Continue. This paper examines Lean Manufacturing (LM), Total Quality Management (TQM), Environmental Management System (EMS) and Islamic Manufacturing practices (IMP) and explores the possibility to integrate this management system into a new Islamic model for in the Malaysian food industry as the country moves forward to becoming a Halal Hub Country.
Proton pump inhibitors are widely used gastrointestinal agent due to its fast healing activity. Several types of proton pump inhibitors are available where Esomeprazole is the latest addition. Total Quality Management (TQM)in Pharmaceutical srmvision.com: Web Developer at Surovi Group.
PB-TQM Palm Bay Total Quality Management. Environmental management system. To achieve the intended outcomes, including enhancing its environmental performance, REA Palm Bay has established, implemented, is maintaining and continually improving the environmental.