The Crusades sparked a fire of religious fervor among thousands of young knights and other Christian believers. Other crusaders were adventurers, fortune seekers, and the poor and destitute.
The proclaimed purpose of the Crusades, which were often requested and encouraged by papal policy, was to recover the city of Jerusalem as well as other eastern locations of religious pilgrimage all located in an area referred to as the Holy Land by Christians from the control of the Muslims.
During the mid-eleventh century, Muslim Turks conquered Syria and Palestine, causing concern among Western Christians.
The year marks the beginning of the Crusades. At this time, Pope Urban II preached a sermon at the Council of Clermont in which he proposed that Western European noblemen and their armies join ranks with the Eastern Christian Byzantine Emperor and his forces in order to mount an attack against the Muslim Turks.
Between andthese combined forces of the First Crusade destroyed the Turkish army at Dorylaeum, conquered the Syrian city of Antioch, and captured Warfare during the crusades essay.
The military achievements of the First Crusade have been attributed to the weak and isolated nature of the Muslim forces. Ina Second Crusade was instigated.
German and French forces suffered serious casualties and failed to regain the lost ground. In the early thirteenth century, a Fourth Crusade was organized but was beset with financial troubles, leading to the diversion of the Crusaders from the original destination of Egypt to Constantinople, which was conquered by the Turks.
The Fifth Crusade, lasting from toattempted to capture Cairo, but failed. Inthe excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II led a diplomatic campaign to the Holy Land and negotiated a treaty that returned Jerusalem to the Crusaders and offered a ten-year guarantee against attack.
The strongholds of the Crusaders began to fall to new enemies and despite a few minor expeditions, the crusading movement dwindled to an end. Critics and historians have approached this period of history in a variety of ways, analyzing the details of the historical records, the literature produced during this time, and the attitudes of Christians toward the Crusades, as well as the forces which influenced people to join the crusading movement.
Cox has studied the precursors to the Crusades, demonstrating the relationship between the pilgrimages to the Holy Land that preceded the Crusades and the Crusades themselves.
Other critics, such as G. James, have focused on the history of a particular Crusade.
James has analyzed the developments leading to and the events of the Second Crusade, commenting in particular on the social changes that influenced it. Like James, Aziz S. Atiya has concentrated his examination on a specific era of the crusading movement.
Atiya argues that the spirit of the Crusades did not die out at the end of the thirteenth century, but continued into the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Hazard have traced the history of the Crusades from the point of view of the Byzantine empire, examining the contribution of the Byzantine rulers to the military and political developments wrought by the Crusades.
Another area of critical interest is the source material from which our knowledge of the Crusades is derived. Thatcher and Steven Runciman are two of the scholars who have evaluated such sources. Thatcher concentrates on the Latin sources, and he assesses the historical value of extant letters and eyewitness accounts.
While Thatcher, Runciman, and others study the contemporary sources of the Crusades for historical accuracy, other critics consider these sources—as well as the poetry, songs, and chronicles of the Crusades—in light of their literary and social value.
Krey has studied contemporary accounts of the First Crusade, such as the anonymous Gesta c.
For example, Krey has observed that the lack of literary allusions and limited vocabulary of the Gesta suggest that the author had acquired a low level of education. Throop has examined the poetry and songs written during the thirteenth century, demonstrating the way in which these verses represent the subtle opposition of their authors to the papal policies on crusading.
Routledge points to such songs as the entertainment of common and illiterate people during the years of the first four Crusades. The epic poetry of the time is also a source of interest for critics.
Alfred Foulet has studied two epic cycles, one written or at least begun toward the end of the twelfth century, and the other composed during the s.
Foulet discusses the form and content of these epic cycles, notes their similarities, and comments on their literary value. The letters written during the Crusades have also been found by critics to be quite revealing. Goitein has examined such a letter composed during the summer of What the letter offers, Goitein explains, is a likely reason for the lack of Jewish narrative on the First Crusade.
Another field of scholarly interest is the search for contemporary evidence of propaganda used to influence the attitudes of Christians toward the Crusades. Dana Carleton Munro has argued that papal sermons and policies encouraged the crusading movement by portraying the Muslims as heathens and worshippers of false gods and idols.
Carl Erdmann has studied the development of the crusading movement during the second half of the eleventh century, observing how rhetoric about ecclesiastical aims and warfare became increasingly commingled, which allowed a very general conception of the Crusade to become transformed into the specific form of a Crusade to Jerusalem.
Religious forces encouraged the Crusades in another manner as well, observes Colin Morris. The popes, Morris has argued, were aware of the persuasive power of visual imagery, particularly on the illiterate. Therefore, in addition to the preaching of the Crusades in sermons, songs, and liturgy, papal policy encouraged the Crusades through placards carried to advertise a particular Crusade, and through the art and architecture of churches and halls.Crusades Essay; Crusades Essay.
Essay about The Crusades. Words | 9 Pages. Madden’s Crusades is an exposition of the crusades, which occurred during the Middle Ages.
The Crusades were a series of military conflicts of a religious character. The City of Constantinople and Warfare of the Byzantine Empire;.
This free History essay on Essay: The Crusades is perfect for History students to use as an example. People today asked the Pope to apologize for the horrors committed during the Crusades.
(Edmonds n.d.) Christians used to be looked at as infidels by the Muslims. In the Arabic history was the first to be written over a period of time. This free History essay on Essay: The Crusades (Holy Wars) is perfect for History students to use as an example.
Although Crusades historians have debated the degree (or the numbers) to which Jews suffered during the First Crusade, there is no debate that they srmvision.com quite a bit too. Thus, it is not surprising that they would have a say in all of this through their surviving sources.
Warfare During The Crusades Medieval warfare is the combat of the middle Ages. In Europe several changes like technological, cultural, and social developments had brought about a dramatic alteration in the nature of warfare from ancient times, altering military procedures and .
During the years of to , the Christians sought to gain the Holy land and Jerusalem from the Muslins, or Moors. These series of wars are called the Crusades.