Bombing of a factory at Marienburg, Germany, on Oct. US Air Force Bombing raids by Allied forces during the Second World War not only caused devastation on the ground but also sent shockwaves through Earth's atmosphere which were detected at the edge of space, according to new research.
US Air Force Bombing raids by Allied forces during the Second World War not only caused devastation on the ground but also sent shockwaves through Earth's atmosphere which were detected at the edge of space, according to new research.
University of Reading researchers have revealed the shockwaves produced by huge bombs dropped by Allied planes on European cities were big enough to weaken the electrified upper atmosphere—the ionosphere—above the UK, km away.
Scientists are using the findings to further understanding of how natural forces from below, like lightning, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes, affect Earth's upper atmosphere. But the impact of these bombs way up in the Earth's atmosphere has never been realised until now.
Each raid released the energy of at least lightning strikes. The sheer power involved has allowed us to quantify how events on the Earth's surface can also affect the ionosphere.
Sequences of radio pulses over a range of shortwave frequencies were sent km above the Earth's surface to reveal the height and electron concentration of ionisation within the upper atmosphere. The strength of the ionosphere is known to be strongly influenced by solar activity, but the ionosphere is far more variable than can be explained by current modelling.
The ionosphere affects modern technologies such as radio communications, GPS systems, radio telescopes and some early warning radar, however the extent of the impact on radio communications during the Second World War is unclear.
Researchers studied the ionosphere response records around the time of large Allied air raids in Europe and found the electron concentration significantly decreased due to the shockwaves caused by the bombs detonating near the Earth's surface.
This is thought to have heated the upper atmosphereenhancing the loss of ionisation. Although the London 'Blitz' bombing was much closer to Slough, the continuous nature of these attacks and the fact there is far less surviving information about them made it more challenging to separate the impact of these explosions from natural seasonal variation.
Detailed records of the Allied raids reveal their four-engine planes routinely carried much larger bombs than the German Luftwaffe's two-engine planes could. These included the 'Grand Slam', which weighed up to 10 tonnes. Professor Patrick Major, University of Reading historian and a co-author of the study, said: Residents under the bombs would routinely recall being thrown through the air by the pressure waves of air mines exploding, and window casements and doors would be blown off their hinges.
There were even rumours that wrapping wet towels around the face might save those in shelters from having their lungs collapsed by blast waves, which would leave victims otherwise externally untouched.In this lesson, you will identify the social and economic impact of World War II on the American home front.
On December 8, , the United States entered World War II. Immediately, the country was forced to prepare for the effects of the war.
The mobilization of. World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from to The vast majority of the world's countries —including all the great powers —eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
Impact of WWII bombing raids felt at edge of space Date: September 26, Source: European Geosciences Union Summary: Bombing raids by Allied forces during the . Bombing raids by Allied forces during the WWII not only caused devastation on the ground but also sent shockwaves through Earth's atmosphere which were detected at the edge of space.
University of. Mar 01, · We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).